北京pk10

《诗经》与“诗教”
来源:光明日报 发布日期:2018-05-10 浏览:505次

《诗经》与“诗教”

《shijing》zaiyidaiyouyidaixuerendebuduanquanshizhong,zhujianxingchengweiyibujuyouzhengzhi、daode、lunli,yijiliyi、yinle、wenhuazonghejiaoyuyiyidejingdianzhuzuo,zaisuzaozhonghuaminzurenwenjingshenhewenhuapingezhongqidaolezhongyaozuoyong。

  《shi》zaizhoudaishehuiyouzhechonggaodediwei,tajishiwenhua、liyidejiaokeshu,yeshiwaijiaochangheshiyongdejiaoliugongju,shentouyudangshishehuidefangfangmianmian。yiner,zhourentebiezhongshi《shi》dejiaoyuxue。zhoudaidexuexiaofenguoxuehexiangxueliangji,shigejiaoyuzhuyaoshijiehelilejiaoyujinxingde。dangshidexili、xiwu、xiledenghuodongchangchangyushigejiaoyujiehezaiyiqi,《shi》dejiaoyuxuedeshezhifeichangtixihua:

北京pk10  yi、“shijiao”anshigetedianxitongjinxing。《zhouli·chunguan·dashi》:“dashizhangliulv、liutong……jiaoliushi:yuefeng,yuefu,yuebi,yuexing,yueya,yuesong。yiliudeweizhiben,yiliulvweizhiyin。”shishuoleguanzaijiaoguozi《shi》shi,anzhao《shi》defenleitedianhechuangzuoshoufafenkejiaoxue,tebiezhuzhongcongdaode、liyiheyinleshangyindao。

  er、“shijiao”yinianlingxunxujianjin。《liji·neize》wei:“shiyousannian,xuele、song《shi》、wu《shao》。chengtong,wu《xiang》,xuesheyu。”guozishisansuikaishixuexiyinle,songdu《shijing》,lianxi《shao》wu,nianlingshaozhangzaixuexi《xiangwu》。jingguojinianxuexihou,guozimen“liuyi”zhishijiunenglvebeijichu,zaiershisuishijinrudaxuejieduan,ju《liji·xueji》jizai:“daxueshijiao”yaokaishixuexi《xiaoya》,zhongdianyanxi《luming》《simu》《huanghuangzhehua》sanshoushige,yimingleweiguanzhidaohejunchenyiti。

  san、“shijiao”yu“lejiao”jinmijiehe。ju《zhouli》suozai,dasilexiangguozichuanshou“lede”“leyu”“lewu”。qizhong“leyu”zhijiaobaokuo“xing、dao、feng、song、yan、yu”,“feng”yu“song”shiyaoqiuxueshengnengbeisongshige、chuangzuoshige,yishiyanzhi、yishifengjian。《mozi·gongmeng》suoshuode“songshisanbai,xianshisanbai,geshisanbai,wushisanbai”,miaoshudezhengshiyiduozhongfangshixuexi《shijing》,yijizaigeleidianlichanghezhongshiyong《shijing》dejingxiang。

北京pk10  si、“shijiao”haibeiguangfanyingyongyuxianshishenghuo。dangshishehuijisi、yanyin、juxingshelidengchanghedouyaoge《shi》。ge《shi》bingpeiyili、le、wudao,shiweilepeiyangshoujiaoyuzhe“dongzheyili”deyishi,xingchengduigerenpinde、yanyu、xingdongdeziwoyueshu。ruzai《yili》xiangyinjiuliyishizhong,jiubansuizhe《shi》ledeyinchangheyanzou,zhenggehuodongjiuxiangyichangguimohongdadelileyanchu。renmentongguoguankan、tiyanxiangyinjiulige《shi》demeiyigeyishuhuahuanjie,shoudaolilexuntao,bingyaotongguoyixiangyididenuli,shideputianzhixiadouzaililedeyingxiangzhong。

北京pk10  《shi》yuli、lejiehe,jiezhuyishuxingshidequanshi,jiuchengleliyijiaohuadelixiangzaiti,zhizaipeiyangchumeishanheyidelixiangrenge。“shijiao”yeyincizhujianchengweishehuilunlidaodehewenhuajianshedezhongyaobufen。

北京pk10  《shijing》wenbenjiejihou,butongshiqidexuezhe,conggezibutonglichangchufa,dui《shijing》jinxinglegongyonggeyidechanshi。shengrenkongzijiutebiezhongshi“shijiao”,《lunyu》he《liji》zhongjiuduocijishukongziyuqidizitan《shi》,huochengyin《shi》zhongciju。neime,kongzijiao《shi》demudeshishenme,yaoshixueshengdadaoshenmeyangdesixiangjingjieni?《liji·jingjie》kongziyue:“ruqiguo,qijiaokezhiye。qiweirenye:wenroudunhou,《shi》jiaoye……wenroudunhouerbuyu,zeshenyu《shi》zheye。”kongzidui“shijiao”dezhongshi,shijiyuqiduishigebenshensuojuyoudeshehuigongyongdelijiehequanshi,jiyunyong“wenroudunhou”duishehuijinxingliyifangmiandexuntao、guifan。

  kongzizaijiaodaozijideerzikonglishijiucengshuoguo:“buxue《shi》,wuyiyan。”(《lunyu·jishi》)qiangdiaodezhengshitongguoxuexi《shijing》huoquyuyannenglidezhongyaoxing。kongzigengjiang“shijiao”yurengexiuyangzhijiandeguanxitilianwei:“xingyushi,liyuli,chengyule。”(《lunyu·taibo》)renweijunzirengedexiuyangshicong《shi》kaishi,yiliweiyiju,youyinlelaiwanchengde。shi、li、lezaicihunranyiti,ninglianchenghouzhongdianyaerbushipianpianfengdudejunzirenge。zaikongziyanli,“song《shi》sanbai,shouzhiyizheng,buda;shiyusifang,bunengzhuandui;suiduoyixiyiwei”(《lunyu·zilu》)。duici,jiangboqianjiurenwei:“song《shi》shouzheng,qiqinengda。gai《shi》zhishuqingmeici,kejieyiliandarenqing,dongmingzhili,ranhoukeyi‘zhuandui’qi。qiewei‘buxue《shi》wuyiyan’zhe,qigukeshenzhangsiyi。”(jiangboqian《shisanjinggailun》)

  tongguokongzidequanshi,《shijing》bujinchengweirenmenrichangshenghuozhongdebiduzhishu,yeshirenmen“dongmingzhili”debibeijiaokeshu。qizhongde“dongmingzhili”,jibaohanlecanzhaolishijingyanjiaoxundeshenkeneihan,youbaohanleyongzhiyiguanzhaoxianshishehuidehouzhongzerengan。tongshi,kongzisuoyan“da”yu《shi》demude,zaiyu“shiyusifang”zhishi,yongyu“zhuandui”。

  fushiyanzhishichunqiuwaijiaoxiangyanzhongdezhongyaolijie,zheizai《zuochuan》zhongyouhenduojizai。rujingongzizhongerzaiqin,mugongxiangzhi,《zuochuan》zai:“zifanyue:‘wuburushuaizhiwenye,qingshishuaicong。’gongzifu《heshui》,gongfu《liuyue》。zhaoshuaiyue:‘zhongerbaici!’gongzijiang,bai,jishou,gongjiangyijierciyan。shuaiyue:‘junchengsuoyizuotianzizhemingzhonger,zhongerganbubai?’”(《zuochuan·xigongershisannian》)《liuyue》zhishinaishizanmeiyinjifuzuozhouxuanwangfaxianyun、kuangwangshizhishi。fu《shi》zheyijuzijidelijie,huoquanmian、huojieyong、huoguiyongyugezhongwaijiaoheliyichanghe,《shijing》wenbenzhuaneryouchengleguojiawaishijiaowangzhonglvshibushuangdebaodian。

  youyukongzidizizhongduo,jiazhikongzi“shengren”deteshudiwei,tadui《shi》suochidetaiduhepingjia,suibeidiziyijirujiahouxuechuanyangkaiqu,《shi》yejiuchengweirujiayanxidezhongyaodianji。《mengzi》yishuzhongyin《shi》weishuogongji36ci,tichule“yiyinizhi”deshixuezhuzhang。《xunzi》yishuyin《shi》lun《shi》80yuchu,gengzhuzhongshishudexuexiyushengrenzhijiaodeguanxi。xunzicengjingzaizhanguoshiqizhumingdejixiaxuegong“sanweijijiu,zuiweilaoshi”(《shiji·mengzixunqingliechuan》),shifenzhongshichuantongjingdianjiaoyu,ba《shi》yu《shu》《li》《le》《chunqiu》zuoweizhuyaodejiaoxueneirong。xunziwanniancengzaichuguolanlingchuanjing,dui《shijing》liuchuanzuochulezhongyaogongxian。keyishuo,yikongziweidaibiaoderujiadui《shisanbai》“youshixiangjing”delishiyanhua,qidaoleguanjianxingdetuidongzuoyong。

北京pk10  hanwudihou,rujiasixiangzhantongzhidiwei,youqiqiangdiaoshigeyuzhengzhijiaohuadeguanxi,shibeishiwei“jingfufu、chengxiaojing、hourenlun、meijiaohua、yifengsu”(《maoshi·daxu》)degongju。《shiji》dezuozhesimaqianchangchangzhijieyinyong《shijing》zhongdeshiju,zuoweiduilishishijianhelishirenwudepingjia。youxieshizhanggenggouchengleqixushideyoujizuchengbufen。rusimaqianzai《shiji》zhongjiutixianchuleyupingjiayuyin《shi》zhizhongdezheiyitese。tazaijishulishirenwu、lishishijiandeguochengzhong,wangwangshishidizhengyin《shijing》zhongdemouxieshizhanglaibiaomingzijidekanfa,zheixiebeizhengyindeshizhang,jizuoweilejishulishirenwuhelishishijiandeyoujizuchengbufen,tongshiyouliuluchuletazijidebaobianqingxiang。《luzhougongshijia》zhongzaijishuzhougongfuzuochengwang,dongzhengguan、caidelishiguochengshi,jiuyinyongle《shijing》zhongde《chixiao》,bujinxiechulezhougongzaibeiliuyaneyizhongshangyijibeichengwangwujiedeqingkuangxia,rengranrenrufuzhong、zhongyuwangshidekuanguangxiongjin,tongshibiaominglesimaqianbenrenduizhougongzaiwuwangbingshi、chengwangnianyoudeqingkuangzhixia,dulizhichengzhouwangchao、weihuxinshengzhengquanzheiyilishixingweidechongfenkending。yushi,《shijing》wenbenchenglelidaishijiarenshilishi、guanzhaoshehuixianshidelilunyiju。

北京pk10  tongguoxianqinzhihandairujiadexitongchanshi,《shijing》delilejiaohuagongnengdedaolekongqiantisheng,chengweiguojiawenhuajingdianwenben,weizhonghuaminzu“wenroudunhou”、shilixiangchengdeminzutesegoujian,zuochulezhongyaogongxian。(zuozhe:liudongying,xiheilongjiangdaxuewenxueyuanjiaoshou。)


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